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金屬工藝創新The metal craft industry
金屬工藝產業 The metal craft industry 
 
工藝起源
 
在遠古時代人們的生活器具皆自行手工製作,當時只求滿足需要,重視其實用性,追求的是技術的精進,但隨著人類文明的發展,除了技術上的「工」,人們也開始重視美學上的「藝」,在1750年的工業革命前,工藝在人類文化演進上儼然成為代言人,生活用品純粹以手工生產,所以稱「手工藝」(Handcraft);在工業革命後,多以機械來輔助製作,並分為「工藝」(Craft)與「工業」(Industrial)兩種分支。
 
Beginning of the craft
In the ancient times, appliances of daily livings were all handcrafted. At that time people only strove for utilizing the functionality of appliances to meet the basic needs of life. Along with human culture development, people became to emphasize the art of esthetics in addition to keep pursuing the improvement of skills. Before 1750 of the Industrial Revolution, the craft just became the spokesman of the human culture evolution. Daily necessities were made purely by manual production called “the handicraft”; After the Industrial Revolution, people use a lot of machinery to assist the manufacture. Therefore, “the craft” and “the industry” became the two branches of the skills of manufacture.
 
早期兩者主要差別在於生產模式與美學價值的不同:「工藝」是以手工製造為主,而以機械為輔,通常設計與製作者並無區分,重視實用功能與美學表現;「工業」則是以機械生產為唯一方式,且設計與製作分工,並以大量製造與降低生產成本為考量,以經濟實用為主要訴求,並不太注重美觀。現今兩者的區分則趨於模糊,因工業品越來越精美,已趨向「工藝化」;而工藝也漸講求量化生產,朝向「產業化」發展。
 
In the early stage, main difference between both lies in the production pattern and the value of esthetics: “The craft” is primarily by the manual manufacture, but take the machinery as auxiliaries. The designer and the maker are the same person and it emphasizes the practical functionalities and esthetics performance; “The industry” takes the machinery production as the only way, but the designer is separated from the manufacturer to reduce production cost and go massive production as the main consideration. It emphasizes on being economy and practical as the main pursuit but not too pays attention to esthetics. Nowadays the discrimination of both tends to be fuzzy, because the industrial products are more and more exquisiter than ever and tended to be “more crafted”; the craft also gradually emphasizes the production volume and goes more “industrial production”.
 
金屬工藝的源起
 
西方人類文明的起源地-兩河流域位於幼發拉底河和底格裏斯河間的區域,在西元前2300年前就已出現金、銀、青銅及黃銅工藝,到了西元7世紀古代伊斯蘭的藝術更可見到金屬工藝的發展,主要以雕花和鑲嵌細工的銅器和鐵器著稱。
 
Beginning of the metal craft
 
Before 2300 B.C. the craft of gold, silver, bronze and brass had been found in the West human culture original area – the Mesopotamia located between the Euphrates River and the Tigris River. Until the 7th century B.C. the development of the metal craft also could be found in the art culture of Islam, which is famous by the carving flower and the inlay works of copperware and iron hardware.
 
而中國則要追溯到西元前21世紀的夏朝初期,開始了冶鍊技術,其青銅器也逐漸成為古今中外金屬工藝的代表作,當時主要是做為祭祀和禮器的用途,如在陜西出土的毛公鼎,其刻在鼎內銘文長達近500字,之後將金屬應用在工藝中除了鐘鳴鼎食的組合外,也逐漸向生活日用器物發揮,到了漢朝時期有非常優秀的銅雕品,而唐代的金銀器及銅鏡更達藝術的高峰,到了明代更有宣德爐及景泰藍讓冶銅技術更上一層樓。
 
While mentioning about the craft in China, it needs to trace back to the 21st century B.C. around the initial period of the Xia Dynasty of China, which started the skill of smelting the metal. Its bronze products also gradually became the representative works of metal craft in the ancient and modern China. At that time the purpose of these products were mainly for the sacrificial and the vessel uses such as the Mao-gong tripod found in the Shannxi area of China, the length of its engraved inscriptions reached to nearly 500 characters. Afterwards the metal craft were gradually applied to the use of everyday life. Furthermore, the extremely outstanding copper ware was found in the Han dynasty of China, and the gold and silver ware and the bronze mirrors reached to the peak of artistic works in the Tang dynasty of China. And until the Ming dynasty of China, the skills of copper smelt were enhanced by the Xuande stove and the cloisonne onto a even higher level.
 
所以,金屬工藝不但記錄著人類歷史及文化的演進,對人類生活上的幫助及應用更是大,舉凡生活中使用的器具、器皿、擺飾甚至戶外景觀都可見到金屬工藝的表現,而金屬工藝也透過其特有材料、形態、功能,而表現出不同的主觀經驗和情感,隨者近代科技的進步,在技法、材料、功能及美感上不斷創新,例如精密鑄造、漸層電鍍及雷射切割等,讓金屬工藝可創造的藝術性更加提高。
 
Therefore, the metal craft is not only recording the human history and the cultural evolution, but also helping the lives of humanity and the related appliances. For example, the performance of the metal craft could be seen on the appliances of daily livings, the household utensils, the ornaments and even the outdoors landscape. The metal craft also displays the different subjective experiences and the emotions through its unique material, shape and functionality. Along the progress of modern science and technology, there are lots of unceasing innovation of the metal craft in the area of the skills, the material, the functionality and the esthetics, which enhance the artistry of the metal craft even more, such as the precision casting, layering galvanization, laser cutting and so on.
 
台灣的金屬工藝及不鏽鋼的創作
 
談到近代台灣金屬工藝的發展,不能不談到自幼生長於鍾靈毓秀的台灣省宜蘭縣的藝術大師楊英風先生,從1950年代即開始創作銅雕作品,到1970年代表台灣到日本大阪萬國博覽會與名建築師貝聿銘合作,負責製作大型景觀雕塑『鳳凰來儀』,直到1990年更為亞運製作大型不鏽鋼景觀雕塑『鳳凌霄漢』,永久陳列在中國大陸北京國家奧林匹克體育中心,其另外一個代表作『水袖』則於2006年由連戰先生送給中國大陸中央總書記胡景濤先生,目前放置於水立方與鳥巢中間的奧林匹克區。
 
Taiwan's metal craft and stainless steel works 
 
While mentioning about the modern metal craft development in Taiwan, we need to mention the artistic Master Mr. YuYu Yang who lived in a fine surroundings of the Yilan County of Taiwan since his childhood. Started from 1950 he carved landscape sculptures to begin his metal craft works and in 1970 he represented Taiwan through co-working with the famous Architect Mr. I.M. Pei in the world exposition of Osaka, Japan, and was responsible to manufacture the large-scale landscape sculpture ” Advent of the Phoenix”. Until 1990 he manufactured the large-scale stainless steel landscape sculpture called “Phoenix scaling the Heaven”, now permanently exhibited in the Beijing national Olympics center of mainland China. And in 2006 his another representative work “Mandarin’s Sleeve”, which Mr. Chan Lien gave to Mr. Jingtao Hu, the Central General Secretary of mainland China, at present lays aside in the Olympics area between the Water Cube and the Bird Nest of Beijing.
 
除了楊英風藝術大師的創作外,反觀台灣在日據時代過後並未能見到金屬工藝的長足精進,台灣本土的金屬工藝品並未被社會所重視,大眾總是偏愛外國產品,從貴重首飾、傢俱擺飾到戶外景觀隨處可見進口貨,而台灣的金屬工業也失去了自我的靈魂,除了一味地製造一成不變的標準品及仿冒外,要不就是成為外國廠商的代工者,而精緻金屬工藝則往往只能見於各個藝術家個人的表現。
 
However, except for the artistic creations of Mr. YuYu Yang, the great progress of the metal craft in Taiwan had not been seen since the Japanese occupation of Taiwan. Since then the sociality of Taiwan did not prize the native metal handicrafts but those from foreign countries, such as the precious jewelries, the furniture ornaments and the outdoors landscape sculptures seen at everywhere. Furthermore, Taiwan's metal industry had lost its soul, not only becoming immutably making standard products and counterfeits, but also performing the mass production for foreign companies. And at the end the fine metal craft only could be seen in individual performance of artists of Taiwan.
 
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